from 3% or so before the crash, obviously, to the u.s. reinvestment and recover act. and both had the same goals in some ways, right? safety net, reinvest, save a failing economy. but there are huge differences too. what were the big differences between the new deal and the new new deal? >> sure. one of the big differences was that, you know, in november, december, january, when -- after obama was elected, but before he took office, sort of the financial earthquake had hit. but the economic tsunami hadn't really hit the shore. so in the fourth quarter of 2008, gdp had crashed at a 9% annual rate. so that's depression territory. at that rate, you would have lost the entire economy of canada in one year. so today, we say, hey, it's only growing 2%. it's not good enough. and it isn't. but, you know, we were essentially in depression numbers. while when fda took over there, had been a depression for two years.